The Middle Managers of Murder Introduction Bureaucracy is not unique to Germany, however its application by the National Socialists as a tool of totalitarian oppression is peerless. The rapid rearmament of Germany and mobilization for war required that the Nazi regime make use of the existing administrative machinery [ 1 ].
His family has been traced back to the 12th century in Picardy ; some of his ancestors in the male line worked as notaries in Carvin near Arras from the beginning of the 17th century. He married Jacqueline Marguerite Carrault, the daughter of a brewer, on 2 January Maximilien was the oldest of four children and was conceived out of wedlock.
His siblings were Charlotte born 21 January[b] Henriette born 28 December[c] and Augustin born 21 January Until his death in Munich on 6 Novemberhe lived in Arras only occasionally; his two daughters Charlotte and Henriette were brought up by their paternal aunts, and his two sons were taken in by their maternal grandparents.
The children would visit each other on Sundays. Robespierre studied there until age 23, receiving his training as a lawyer. Upon his graduation, he received a special prize of livres for twelve years of exemplary academic success and personal good conduct.
He also studied the works of the Swiss philosophe Jean-Jacques Rousseau and was attracted to many ideas, written in his " Contrat Social ".
Robespierre became intrigued by the idea of a "virtuous self", a man who stands alone accompanied only by his conscience. Robespierre soon resigned, owing to discomfort in ruling on capital cases arising from his early opposition to the death penalty.
During court hearings he was often known to promote the ideals of the Enlightenment and to argue for the rights of man.
He became regarded as one of the best writers and most popular young men of Arras. In December he was elected a member of the academy of Arras, the meetings of which he attended regularly.
In the academy of Metz awarded him a medal for his essay on the question of whether the relatives of a condemned criminal should share his disgrace.
He and Pierre Louis de Lacretellean advocate and journalist in Paris, divided the prize. Many of his subsequent essays were less successful, but Robespierre was compensated for these failures by his popularity in the literary and musical society at Arras, known as the "Rosatia".
In its meetings he became acquainted with Lazare Carnotwho later became his colleague on the Committee of Public Safety. King Louis XVI later announced new elections for all provinces, thus allowing Robespierre to run for the position of deputy for the Third Estate.
In the assembly of the bailliagerivalry ran still higher, but Robespierre had begun to make his mark in politics with the Avis aux habitants de la campagne, 'Notice to the Residents of the Countryside ' of With this, he secured the support of the country electors.
Although he was only thirty, comparatively poor, and lacking patronage, he was elected as the fifth deputy of the Third Estate of Artois to the Estates-General. When Robespierre arrived at Versailles few of the other deputies knew him, but he became part of the representative National Assembly 13 June declared by the Third Estate, soon to transform itself 9 July into the National Constituent Assembly.
Jacobin Club After his arrival in Paris from Versailles inalong with the National Assembly, Robespierre soon became involved with the new Society of the Friends of the Constitution, known eventually as the Jacobin Club.
After the National Assembly moved to Paris, the Club began to admit various leaders of the Parisian bourgeoisie to its membership. As time went on, many of the more educated artisans and small shopkeepers became members of the club.
As the wealthier bourgeois of Paris and right-wing deputies seceded from the club ofthe influence of the old leaders of the Jacobins, such as Antoine BarnaveAdrien Duportand Alexandre de Lamethdiminished. Alarmed at the progress of the Revolution, they founded the club of the Feuillants in On 15 MayRobespierre proposed and carried the motion that no deputy who sat in the Constituent Assembly could sit in the succeeding Assembly.
This self-denying ordinance, designed to demonstrate the disinterested patriotism of the framers of the new constitution, had the effect of accelerating political change as deputies with experience and knowledge of the difficulties faced by France were to be replaced by new and often more enthusiastic men.
InRobespierre moved to rue de Saintonge, No. Robespierre lived there until his death except for two short intervals. In November, he returned to Paris to take the position of public prosecutor of Paris.
Jean-Paul Marat and Robespierre opposed him, because they feared the influence of militarism, which might be turned to the advantage of the reactionary forces.
Robespierre was also convinced that the internal stability of the country was more important.
This opposition from expected allies irritated the Girondists, and the war became a major point of contention between the factions. Robespierre countered, "A revolutionary war must be waged to free subjects and slaves from unjust tyranny, not for the traditional reasons of defending dynasties and expanding frontiers The risks of Caesarism were clear, for in wartime, the powers of the generals would grow at the expense of ordinary soldiers, and the power of the king and court at the expense of the Assembly.
These dangers should not be overlooked, he reminded his listeners, " If they are Caesars or Cromwellsthey seize power for themselves.Early life. Maximilien de Robespierre was born in Arras in the old French province of metin2sell.com family has been traced back to the 12th century in Picardy; some of his ancestors in the male line worked as notaries in Carvin near Arras from the beginning of the 17th century.
It has been suggested that he was of Irish descent, his surname possibly a corruption of "Robert Speirs".
Read the latest stories about photography on Time. Even from a distance, you can see the scars—thick, deep marks scrawled across his face and scalp.
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It was another one of Obama’s breathtaking moments of hypocrisy, since he has repeatedly violated the territorial integrity of various countries, including in Syria where he has authorized.