Autism spectrum disorder ASD: Learning disabilities can include developmental speech and language disorders and academic skills disorders.
Twenty-four publications met inclusion criteria for synthetic food colors; 10 additional studies informed analysis of dietary restriction. A random-effects meta-analytic model generated summary effect sizes.
In psychometric tests of attention, the summary effect size was 0. Effects of food colors were notable were but susceptible to publication bias or were derived from small, nongeneralizable samples. Renewed investigation of diet and ADHD is warranted. The causes of ADHD and the modifiers of its course are multifactorial.
Among the dietary theories, the hypothesis that allergies or else hypersensitivity to certain foods or ingredients cause learning and behavior problems entered the literature as early as the s.
To treat this reaction, Feingold proposed a diet free of foods with a natural salicylate radical and all synthetic colors and flavors. Inthe National Institutes of Health convened a consensus development conference on defined diets and childhood hyperactivity, which recommended further study.
In a more recent meta-analysis, Schab and Trinh 10 reviewed 15 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, plus six others for their supplemental analysis.
The effects seemed to be similar whether or not children were initially selected to be hyperactive. That report helped revive scientific interest in the role of synthetic food colors. Several considerations warrant an updated meta-analysis at the present time.
Subsequent studies have appeared, and significant differences on the risks of food colors have emerged among authorities. In particular, the authors of a population-based study conducted in England 11 concluded that food additives contribute to hyperactivity, prompting the European Union Parliament recently to require warning labels on foods containing six colors, not all of which are approved for use in the United States.
Food and Drug Administration [FDA] 12 has approved nine synthetic colors for use in food subject to batch certification: Quinoline Yellow, Carmoisine, and Ponceau. They provided an unpublished literature review arguing that colorings contributed to behavior problems, and contended that there was little justification for incurring any health risks because, in their view, food colors provide no health benefits.
Another major qualitative review in 14 reached a somewhat different conclusion: A subgroup of children with ADHD are sensitive to synthetic color additives, flavors, or salicylates and could benefit from a restricted diet. However, the authors did not quantify the magnitude of the behavioral effect.
In all, there is a crucial lack of consensus and lack of recent quantification about these alleged effects. If dietary interventions would be beneficial in a substantial portion of ADHD cases, then treatment guidelines would require revision.
If evidence were to support a role for color additives in ADHD, then further policy and regulatory review would be needed.Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
  It is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behavior which is not appropriate for a person's age.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and critical incidents in a Scottish prison population. W.
HallAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders: Is there a causal link? Addiction, 96 R.
VitelliPrevalence of childhood conduct and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in adult maximum security inmates. Method. Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases through February Twenty-four publications met inclusion criteria for synthetic food colors; 10 additional studies informed analysis of dietary restriction.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in childhood, affecting % of children between the ages of 7 and Family studies suggest that there is a genetic component to ADHD. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) controversies include concerns about its causes, perceived overdiagnosis, and methods of treatment, especially with the use of stimulant medications in children.
These controversies have surrounded the subject since at least the s. Explore information on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including signs and symptoms, treatment, current science, and clinical trials.