History[ edit ] Citrinin was one of the many mycotoxins which were discovered by H. Hetherington in the s.
MSM is an abbreviation of methylsulfonylmethane, an organic form of sulfur. It is the form in which sulfur appears in nature in all living organisms, and in which it is biologically active. MSM is an odorless, white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in hot water and in a wide range of organic solvents 1.
Biologically active sulfur has incredible preventive and therapeutic properties. The medicinal properties of biological sulfur are profound, and they are also based on obvious principles.
Stanley Jacob and Dr. Robert Herschler, chemists with the pulp and paper plant Crown Zellerbach Corporation, were asked to find a use for lignin, one of the primary waste products of the plant. Oxidation of lignin in a reactor was shown to result in the formation of DMSO Dimethylsulfoxidea natural, organic form of sulfur.
This water soluble compound has a strong and bitter taste, and is absorbed rapidly through the skin. According to George Bergstrom, who later went into business manufacturing biological sulfur for medicinal use, workers coming in contact with the DMSO-saturated wastewater noticed their perspiration began smelling like DMSO, and they tasted its bitterness in their mouths.
Moreover, the water appeared to have special medicinal qualities. Many stories about miraculous recoveries and benefits still go around, but they can not be authenticated.
It became clear, however, that cuts, scrapes, burns and sprains recovered more quickly when dipped in this water. Several workers also noticed that conditions caused by arthritis and asthma improved when they came in contact with the DMSO water. Following its original discovery, several thousand articles and publications have appeared in the United States discussing the medicinal properties of DMSO.
Because of its bitter taste and penetrating odor, DMSO never became very popular with the general public. Another problem with DMSO was that it sometimes caused skin irritation when applied topically.
For these reasons, researchers began looking to engineer a less repellant derivative of DMSO that would contain all of its positive health benefits without its negative qualities. Oxidation of DMSO was found to produce MSM, a much more stable, organic sulfur compound with medicinal properties at least equal to DMSO, but without the odor and skin irritation complications 4, 8, 9.
Algae and several forms of plankton are capable of absorbing massive amounts of inorganic sulfur from seawater, and of converting this into a simple, organically-bound form.
When these algae and planktonic organisms die, enzymatic processes result in the breakdown of the organic molecules into DMS, or Dimethylsulfide. This compound is volatile and poorly soluble in water.
It collects in the stratosphere, where it is oxidized under the influence of ultraviolet light into DMSO Dimethylsulfoxideand further converted into MSM Methylsulfonylmethane. DMSO and MSM are highly soluble in water, and therefore concentrate easily in atmospheric water vapor, returning to earth in the form of rain.
Plant roots rapidly collect and concentrate these sulfur sources. Laboratory research has shown, that a one ppm mixture of radioactive labeled DMSO and MSM, can concentrate hundred fold in plant roots within hours 4.
Because of this process, rainwater contains a lot of MSM. Due to the volatile nature of MSM, it is rapidly lost when consumables are heated during food preparation or pasteurization. Pasturized milk therefore contains less than 0.
MSM is also lost when vegetables and fruit are frozen for a lengthy period of time, or when they are irradiated. Due to the realities of the modern food industry, in which a great portion of everything consumed is either heated, irradiated, or frozen for a period of time, most people in post-industrial societies suffer from a chronic shortage of MSM.
Normal adults excrete 4 to 11 mg MSM per day in their urine. Several studies suggest that the systemic concentration of MSM drops in mammals with increased age, possibly as a result of changing diet or body metabolism. Some research suggests that there is a minimum concentration of MSM that must be maintained in the body to preserve normal physiological function and the molecular structure of our musculoskeletal systems 8, 9.
Low concentrations of MSM in our bodies have been linked with unspecified complaints of fatigue, depression, high sensitivity to physical and psychological stress, and with a large number of degenerative diseases 5, 6.
MSM is an important source of sulfur, but also has unique properties related to its chemical structure and biological activities. To understand the preventive and therapeutic properties of MSM, a distinction needs to be made between the questions of "why humans need sulfur" and "why humans need MSM.
Following calcium and phosphorus, sulfur is the third most abundant mineral in the body. A grown man of average height and weight has approximately grams of sulfur distributed through their system 6. Nearly half of all sulfur is contained in muscular tissue, skin, and bones 5.
Protein Structure When plants absorb MSM from rainwater, they convert it into sulfur containing the amino acids methionine and cysteine. Taurine and cystine, the other two known sulfur amino acids, are synthesized from cysteine.
Methionine and cysteine are considered two of them. There are approximately 28 known amino acids.In the recent years, PVDF has become one of the more popular membrane materials. Comparing with other materials such as polysulfone (PS), polyethersulfone (PES) and polyimide (PI), PVDF is relatively more hydrophobic, although the hydrophobicity may not be as high as polypropylene (PP) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).
Dec 03, · What effect does the presence of an organic solvent have on the permeability of a cell membrane?
Update: and would all organic solvents likely affect the permeability in the same way? Update 2: neeed hellllp fassstStatus: Resolved. * Legal Disclaimer: Chelation and Hyperbaric Therapy, Stem Cell Therapy, and other treatments and modalities mentioned or referred to in this web site are medical techniques that may or may not be considered “mainstream”.
Abstract. A simple experimental model was used to study the influence of organic solvents and solvent mixtures on the integrity of biological membranes.
The effect of postmodification of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules by exposure to organic solvent/water mixtures on their permeability, morphology, and mechanical properties is investigated.
We study microcapsules with ultrathin shells composed of alternating polystyrene sulfonate and polyallylamine hydrochloride.
Ethanol and acetone are used as organic solvents. Some chemicals such as organic solvents can dissolve the organic matter in cell membrane, causing damage of the membrane and therefore increased permeability.
This leads to an easier leakage of contents of the cell.