The game of softball appeared in the U. While the two sports are similar in many ways, they also contrast in a number of ways -- as does their history.
History A dugout dowbanka dating from the end of the 19th century at Radomysl CastleUkraine  Boats have served as transportation since the earliest times. The earliest boats are thought to have been dugouts and the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation date from around 7,—10, years ago.
The oldest recovered boat in the world, the Pesse canoefound in the Netherlandsis a dugout made from the hollowed tree trunk of a Pinus sylvestris that was constructed somewhere between and BC.
This canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands. This type of mammoth wooden ship was constructed[ when? The ancient Arabs and Greeks used such boats as trading vessels.
List of boat types Boats can be categorized into How boats work essay main types: Unpowered craft include rafts meant for one-way downstream travel. Human-powered boats include canoeskayaksgondolas and boats propelled by poles like a punt. Sailboatspropelled mainly by means of sails.
Motorboatspropelled by mechanical means, such as engines. Glossary of nautical terms The hull is the main, and in some cases only, structural component of a boat. It provides both capacity and buoyancy. The keel is a boat's "backbone", a lengthwise structural member to which the perpendicular frames are fixed.
On most boats a deck covers the hull, in part or whole. While a ship often has several decks, a boat is unlikely to have more than one.
Above the deck are often lifelines connected to stanchionsbulwarks perhaps topped by gunnelsor some combination of How boats work essay two. A cabin may protrude above the deck forward, aft, along the centerline, or covering much of the length of the boat.
Vertical structures dividing the internal spaces are known as bulkheads. The forward end of a boat is called the bowthe aft end the stern. Facing forward the right side is referred to as starboard and the left side as port.
Building materials Traditional Toba Batak boat circaphotograph by Kristen Feilberg Fishing Boats in VisakhapatnamIndia Until the midth century most boats were made of natural materials, primarily wood, although reedbark and animal skins were also used. Early boats include the bound-reed style of boat seen in Ancient Egypt, the birch bark canoethe animal hide-covered kayak  and coracle and the dugout canoe made from a single log.
By the midth century, many boats had been built with iron or steel frames but still planked in wood. In ferro-cement boat construction was patented by the French, who coined the name "ferciment". This is a system by which a steel or iron wire framework is built in the shape of a boat's hull and covered over with cement.
Reinforced with bulkheads and other internal structure it is strong but heavy, easily repaired, and, if sealed properly, will not leak or corrode.
These materials and methods were copied all over the world and have faded in and out of popularity to the present time. As the forests of Britain and Europe continued to be over-harvested to supply the keels of larger wooden boats, and the Bessemer process patented in cheapened the cost of steel, steel ships and boats began to be more common.
By the s boats built entirely of steel from frames to plating were seen replacing wooden boats in many industrial uses and fishing fleets. Private recreational boats of steel remain uncommon.
In WH Mullins produced steel boats of galvanized iron and by became the world's largest producer of pleasure boats. Mullins also offered boats in aluminum from through and once again in the s,   but it wasn't until the midth century that aluminium gained widespread popularity.
Though much more expensive than steel, aluminum alloys exist that do not corrode in salt water, allowing a similar load carrying capacity to steel at much less weight. Around the mids, boats made of fiberglass glass-reinforced plastic became popular, especially for recreational boats.
Fiberglass boats are strong, and do not rust, corrode, or rot. Instead, they are susceptible to structural degradation from sunlight and extremes in temperature over their lifespan. FRP structures can be made stiffer with sandwich panels, where the FRP encloses a lightweight core such as balsa or foam.
Cold moulding is similar to FRP in using epoxy or polyester resins, but substitutes wood for fibreglass as the structural component. In cold moulding very thin strips of wood are layered over a form.
Each layer is coated with resin, followed by another directionally alternating layer laid on top. Subsequent layers may be stapled or otherwise mechanically fastened to the previous, or weighted or vacuum bagged to provide compression and stabilization until the resin sets. Propulsion The most common means of boat propulsion are as follows:A practical DIY guide to the nitty gritty of how small powerboats and sailing boats work, covering such things as engines, propellers, compasses, sails, and rigging.
For younger readers First Book of Ships and Boats by Isabel Thomas. • Spread out the towel or paper towels on a hard work surface. Fill the bowl or container about two thirds full of tap water and set it on the towel(s). • Measure out a square of aluminum foil.
May 14, · Make the boat more stable in the water. Using two ships, one inside the other, help the ship have more buoyancy, as well as helping the paper be more resistant to water. Try placing small pebbles around the edge of the triangular middle part of the ship.
The pebbles will act as ballast and help the ship keep upright%(43). Depending on the style of essay you are writing (narrative, persuasive, personal, critical, argumentative, deductive, etc.), the type of hook you will want to use will vary.
Remember, your essay hook is just a tip of an iceberg and it will not guarantee that the rest of your essay will work.
There was a lot of confusion in dividing the work during the start of the work. Later workers who could not make the boats were cutting the paper and others were making the boats.
Attention was paid only to the quantity of the boats and not the quality. boats Essays: Over , boats Essays, boats Term Papers, boats Research Paper, Book Reports. ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access.
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