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India[ edit ] Paper spread to India in the 7th century. There was a tradition that Muslims would release their prisoners if they could teach ten Muslims any valuable knowledge.
Production began in Baghdadwhere a method was invented to make a thicker sheet of paper, which helped transform papermaking from an art into a major industry. The Muslims also introduced the use of trip hammers human- or animal-powered in the production of paper, replacing the traditional Chinese mortar and pestle method.
In turn, the trip hammer method was later employed by the Chinese. As paper was less reactive to humidity, the heavy boards were not needed. By the 12th century in Marrakech in Morocco a street was named "Kutubiyyin" or book sellers which contained more than bookshops.
Egypt continued with the thicker paper, while Iran became the center of the thinner papers. Papermaking was diffused across the Islamic world, from where it was diffused further west into Europe. They used hemp and linen rags as a source of fiber.
It is clear that France had a paper mill byand by mills were established in FabrianoItaly and in Treviso and other northern Italian towns by Papermaking then spread further northwards, with evidence of paper being made in TroyesFrance byin Holland sometime around —, in MainzGermany inand in Nuremberg by in a mill set up by Ulman Stromer.
There was a paper mill in Switzerland by and the first mill in England was set up by John Tate in near Stevenage in Hertfordshire but the first commercially successful paper mill in Britain did not occur before when John Spilman set up a mill near Dartford in Kent.
At the time they were renowned for their wool-weaving and manufacture of cloth. Fabriano papermakers considered the process of making paper by hand an art form and were able to refine the process to successfully compete with parchment which was the primary medium for writing at the time.
They developed the application of stamping hammers to reduce rags to pulp for making paper, sizing paper by means of animal glueand creating watermarks in the paper during its forming process. The Fabriano used glue obtained by boiling scrolls or scraps of animal skin to size the paper; it is suggested that this technique was recommended by the local tanneries.
The introduction of the first European watermarks in Fabriano was linked to applying metal wires on a cover laid against the mould which was used for forming the paper. The paper is created by boiling and pounding the inner bark of trees, until the material becomes suitable for art and writing.
These materials made from pounded reeds and bark are technically not true paperwhich is made from pulp, rags, and fibers of plants and cellulose. European papermaking spread to the Americas first in Mexico by and then in Philadelphia by Paper mill The Nuremberg paper mill, the building complex at the lower right corner, in Due to their noise and smell, paper mills were required by medieval law to be erected outside the city perimeter.
The use of human and animal powered mills was known to Chinese and Muslim papermakers. However, evidence for water-powered paper mills is elusive among both prior to the 11th century.
Hemp fiber was commonly used in the production of paper from BC to the late s.Thou shalt write as if thy reader is intelligent–but totally uninformed on any particular subject: hence, thou shalt identify all persons, organizations, etc., and shalt in every way try to make thy paper a .
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