Sinceand especially the last few months, the domestic problems of a major N. O, Middle Eastern, and American ally state have come to the forefront of the international news scene.
Although estimates of their precise numbers vary, the Kurds are reckoned to be the fourth largest ethnic group in the Middle East, following Arabs, Turks, and Persians. The Kurds are thought to number from 25 million to 30 million, including communities in Armenia, GeorgiaKazakhstanLebanonSyria, and Europe, but sources for this information differ widely because of differing criteria of ethnicityreligion, and language; statistics may also be manipulated for political purposes.
The traditional Kurdish way of life was nomadicrevolving around sheep and goat herding throughout the Mesopotamian plains and the highlands of Turkey and Iran.
Most Kurds practiced only marginal agriculture. The enforcement of national boundaries beginning after World War I —18 impeded the seasonal migrations of the flocks, forcing most of the Kurds to abandon their traditional ways for village life and settled farming; others entered nontraditional employment.
Most Kurds are Sunni Muslims, and among them are many who practice Sufism and other mystical sects. Their reputation for military prowess has made them much in demand as mercenaries in many armies. The sultan Saladinbest known to the Western world for exploits in the Crusadesepitomizes the Kurdish military reputation.
Social organization The principal unit in traditional Kurdish society was the tribetypically led by a sheikh or an aga, whose rule was firm. Detribalization proceeded intermittently as Kurdish culture became urbanized and was nominally assimilated into several nations.
In nonurban areas, males usually marry at age 20 and females at age Households typically consist of father, mother, and children. Polygamypermitted by Islamic lawis sometimes practiced, although it is forbidden by civil law in Turkey.
Kurdish women—who traditionally have been more active in public life than Turkish, Araband Iranian women—as well as Kurdish men, have taken advantage of urban educational and employment opportunities, especially in prerevolutionary Iran.
The dream of autonomy Kurdish nationalism came about through the conjunction of a variety of factors, including the British introduction of the concept of private property, the partition of regions of Kurdish settlement by modern neighbouring states, and the influence of British, U.
These factors and others combined with the flowering of a nationalist movement among a very small minority of urban, intellectual Kurds. The first Kurdish newspaper appeared in and was published at intervals until It was revived at Istanbul in when the first Kurdish political club, with an affiliated cultural society, was also founded and again in Cairo during World War I.
Thus the opportunity to unify the Kurds in a nation of their own was lost. Indeed, Kurdistan after the war was more fragmented than before, and various separatist movements arose among Kurdish groups. The Turkish government suppressed Kurdish political agitation in the eastern provinces and encouraged the migration of Kurds to the urbanized western portion of Turkey, thus diluting the concentration of Kurdish population in the uplands.
Operating mainly from eastern Anatolia, PKK fighters engaged in guerrilla operations against government installations and perpetrated frequent acts of terrorism.
Inunder pressure from the European Union in which Turkey sought membershipthe government legalized broadcasts and education in the Kurdish language. Turkey continued to mount military operations against the PKK, including incursions into northern Iraq.
Thereafter, the KDPI engaged in low-level hostilities with the Iranian government into the 21st century.
Although the pressure for Kurds to assimilate was less intense in Iraq where the Kurdish language and culture have been freely practicedgovernment repression has been the most brutal. A failed peace accord with the Iraqi government led to another outbreak of fighting inbut an agreement between Iraq and Iran—which had been supporting Kurdish efforts—later that year led to a collapse of Kurdish resistance.
Thousands of Kurds fled to Iran and Turkey. This policy accelerated in the s as large numbers of Kurds were forcibly relocated, particularly from areas along the Iranian border where Iraqi authorities suspected Kurds were aiding Iranian forces during the Iran-Iraq War — What followed was one of the most brutal episodes in Kurdish history.
In a series of operations between March and Augustcode-named Anfal Arabic: Violence and instability in Iraq following the removal of Saddam Hussein and in Syria following the outbreak of civil war in threatened the security of Kurdish communities but also offered new opportunities for Kurds to advance their claims to autonomy.Turkish History.
Topics: Ottoman Empire, * Tıbbiye students formed Ottoman Unity Society, laters some members joined CUP_Committe of Unity and progress. * Started against Abdulhamid’s absolute regime (istibdad). Supporting the westernizationed and modernizations.
History of Turkish Occupation of Northern Kurdistan. Eric jensen Poli.
Sci. (Third World Politics) 11/27/96 Since , and especially the last few months, the domestic problems of a major N.A.T.O, Middle Eastern, and American ally state have come to the forefront of the international news scene.
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History of Turkish Occupation of Northern Kurdistan Essay Words | 17 Pages History of Turkish Occupation of Northern Kurdistan Since , and especially the last few months, the domestic problems of a major N.A.T.O, Middle Eastern, and American ally state have come to the forefront of the international news scene.
Eric jensen Poli.
Sci. (Third World Politics) 11/27/96 History of Turkish Occupation of Northern Kurdistan. Since , and especially the last few months, the domestic problems of a major N.A.T.O, Middle Eastern, and American ally state have come to the forefront of the international news.
Kurdish popular insurgency on it's hands, in Turkish occupied Northern Kurdistan. The Kurdish question has long been covered up and denied by the state of Turkey, but recent events has forced Turkey to concede that it has a serious Kurdish insurgency on its hands.